Pacific ruby snapperETA

Etelis cf. carbunculus
27.0 cm TL

Characteristic features:

  • Dorsal fin deeply incised between spinous and soft portions
  • Maxilla with scales, maxilla extending to below mid-eye
  • 11 dorsal-fin soft rays
  • First gill arch with 17–22 gill rakers
  • Caudal fin shallowly forked
  • Outer margin of operculum pointed


Pinkish to reddish.


Up to 120 cm TL.


West and Central Pacific, in tropical waters.


Rocky bottoms, from 90 to at least 400 m depth.


Feeds primarily on fishes, larger invertebrates such as squids, shrimps and crabs, also feeds on planktonic organisms. A demersal species occurring in aggregations. Length at maturity estimates vary, in waters off Papua New Guinea, length at first maturity was 61.0 cm FL,1 while off Hawaii first maturity was recorded at 35 cm.2 In Vanuatu, spawning occurs throughout the year peaking in November.3 The mean published literature for longevity is estimated at 15.2 years.4


Caught mainly with bottom longlines and deep handlines.

Similar species:

Etelis coruscans
Flame snapper
Etelis coruscans differs in having an outer margin of operculum rounded (vs. pointed); a caudal fin deeply forked (vs. shallowly forked) and first gill arch with 23–28 gill rakers (vs. 17–22).
Etelis radiosus
Pale snapper
Etelis radiosus
FAO. License: CC BY-NC 3.0
Etelis radiosus differs in having a caudal fin lunate with notch in the center of trailing edge (vs. shallowly forked with no notch present); Maxilla extending to posterior eye margin (vs. level with middle of eye) and first gill arch with 32–36 gill rakers (vs. 17–22).
Pristipomoides spp.
Pristipomoides typus
Pristipomoides typus
Pristipomoides species differ in having junction between spinous and soft portion of dorsal fin indistinct (vs. junction deeply incised); dorsal fin with 10 spines and 10 soft rays (vs. 10 spines and 11, very infrequently 10, soft rays) and maxilla without scales (vs. with).

External links:

The IUCN Red List of Threatened SpeciesTM


  1. 1.
    Lokani P, Pili H, Richards A, Tiroba G. Estimation of the unexploited biomass and maximum sustainable yield for the deep reef demersal fishes in Papua New Guinea. In: United States Agency for International Development and National Marine Fisheries Service Workshop on Tropical Fish Stock Assessment’(Eds JJ Polovina and RS Shomura) National Marine Fisheries Service NOAA Technical Report NMFS-SWFSC-148 [Internet]. 1990. p. 29–54. Available from:
  2. 2.
    DeMartini EE. Body size at sexual maturity in the eteline snappers Etelis carbunculus and Pristipomoides sieboldii: subregional comparisons between the main and north-western Hawaiian Islands. Marine and Freshwater Research [Internet]. 2017;68(6):1178–86. Available from:
  3. 3.
    Allen GR. Snappers of the world: an annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date [Internet]. 1985. Available from:
  4. 4.
    Martinez-Andrade F. A comparison of life histories and ecological aspects among snappers (Pisces: Lutjanidae). 2003.