Kakap

Ciri tubuh:

  • Rahang biasanya dengan gigi taring yang tampak jelas
  • Mulut lebar
  • Sirip punggung dengan 10–17 duri lunak

Kunci:

Semua kunci diadaptasi dari Anderson & Allen, 2001.1

Lutjanidae genera
    1. Dorsal and anal fins without scales; dorsal fin with 10 spines and 10 or 11 soft rays 2
    2. Soft dorsal and anal fins with scales or sheathed with scales basally; dorsal fin with 10–12 spines and 11–19 soft rays8
    1. Maxilla with scales3
    2. Maxilla without scales4
    1. Spinous portion of dorsal fin deeply incised at its junction with soft portion; dorsal fin with 10 spines and 11 (rarely 10) soft raysEtelis
    2. Spinous portion of dorsal fin not deeply incised at its junction with soft portion; dorsal fin with 10 spines and 10 soft raysParacaesio
    1. Premaxillae essentially not protrusible, attached to snout at symphysis by a frenumAphareus
    2. Premaxillae protrusible, not attached to snout by frenum5
    1. Dorsal fin with 10 spines and 11 (rarely 10) soft rays; last soft ray of both dorsal and anal fins longer than second last soft ray6
    2. Dorsal fin with 10 spines and 10 soft rays; last soft ray of both dorsal and anal fins shorter than second last soft ray7
    1. Groove present on snout below nostrils; pectoral fins less than ½ length of head Aprion virescens (Green jobfish)
    2. No groove on snout; pectoral fins a little shorter than head to somewhat longer than headPristipomoides
    1. Upper lip with a median fleshy protrusion, well developed in adults; spines of dorsal and anal fins strong, very robust in large adultsLipocheilus carnolabrum (Tang’s snapper)
    2. Upper lip without a median fleshy protrusionParacaesio
    1. Vomer without teeth; dorsal fin with 10 spines and 14–19 soft rays; 1 or more anterior soft dorsal-fin rays produced as filaments (at least in juveniles)9
    2. Vomer with teeth; dorsal fin with 10–12 spines and 11–16 soft rays; none of anterior soft dorsal-fin rays produced as filaments10
    1. Anterior profile quite steep; dorsal fin with 10 spines and 17–19 soft rays; upper and lower pharyngeals enlarged and bearing large molariform teeth Symphorichthys spilurus (Sailfin snapper)
    2. Anterior profile sloping more gently; dorsal fin with 10 spines and 14–17 soft rays; upper and lower pharyngeals not particularly enlarged, not bearing molariform teethSymphorus nematophorus (Chinamanfish)
    1. First gill arch with 60 or more gill rakers on lower limbMacolor
    2. First gill arch with 20 or fewer gill rakers on lower limb11
    1. Upper and lower profiles of head equally rounded; eye set toward middle of head; mouth rather small, somewhat upturned; no fang-like canines at anterior ends of jawsPinjalo
    2. Upper and lower profiles of head not equally rounded, upper profile evenly rounded to steeply sloped, and lower profile flattened; eye closer to upper profile of head than to lower; mouth larger, usually not upturned; some fang-like canines usually present at anterior ends of jawsLutjanus
Spesies Aphareus
    1. Lengkungan insang pertama dengan 6–12 penyapu insang pada bagian atas dan 15–18 pada bagian bawah (total 22–28 termasuk rudimen, jika ada); tubuh biru baja hingga cokelat keunguan Aphareus furca (Jobfish gigi kecil)
    2. Lengkungan insang pertama dengan 16–19 penyapu insang pada bagian atas dan 32–35 pada bagian bawah (total 49–52 termasuk rudimen, jika ada); tubuh biru abu-abu hingga kemerahan Aphareus rutilans (Jobfish rusty)
Spesies Etelis
    1. Total penyapu insang pada lengkungan insang pertama 17–22, termasuk rudimen; lobus atas sirip ekor pendek (26–30% SL dalam spesimen >SL 120 mm) Etelis carbunculus (Kakap rubi Pasifik)
    2. Total penyapu insang pada lengkung insang pertama 32–36, termasuk rudimen; lobus atas sirip ekor sedikit lebih panjang (30-34% SL dalam spesimen >SL 130 mm) Etelis radiosus (Kakap pucat)
    3. Total penyapu insang pada lengkung insang pertama 23–28, termasuk rudimen; lobus atas sirip ekor sangat panjang (33–75% SL) Etelis coruscans (Kakap api)
Lutjanus species
    1. Preorbital (suborbital) space (distance between upper jaw and eye) very narrow, 9.2–16.3 times in head length; body slender, usually 3 or more times in standard length; soft dorsal-fin rays 122
    2. Preorbital (suborbital) space (distance between upper jaw and eye) wider, 3.3–8.9 times in head length; body deeper, 2.1–3.1 times (but usually <3 times) in standard length; soft dorsal-fin rays usually 13 more (occasionally 12)3
    1. A dark lateral band from snout to caudal-fin base and 2 pearly white spots above lateral line (1 below spinous portion and other below soft portion of dorsal fin); body depth 3.5–3.8 times in SL; tongue usually smooth, without teeth Lutjanus biguttatus (Twospot snapper)
    2. Silvery white with a broad yellow lateral stripe and narrow yellowish lines corresponding with longitudinal scale rows; body depth 2.9–3.3 times in SL; tongue with a patch of fine granular teethLutjanus lutjanus (Bigeye snapper)
    1. Background colour pale (mainly yellow in life) with a series of 4 or 5 longitudinal blue stripes on sides 4
    2. Colour not as above 6
    1. Dorsal-fin spines 11 or 12Lutjanus bengalensis (Bengal snapper)
    2. Dorsal-fin spines 105
    1. Four stripes on sides; belly usually abruptly whitish, often with thin grey lines; scale rows on cheek 5 or 6; upper pectoral-fin rays darkishLutjanus kasmira (Common bluestipe snapper)
    2. Five stripes on sides; belly not abruptly whitish and without thin lines; scale rows on cheek 10 or 11; upper pectoral-fin rays paleLutjanus quinquelineatus (Fivelined snapper)
    1. Longitudinal scale rows above lateral line obliquely positioned (angled)7
    2. Longitudinal scale rows above lateral line entirely horizontal or some rows rising obliquely from below middle of dorsal fin29
    1. Vomerine tooth patch triangular or diamond-shaped with a medial posterior extension8
    2. Vomerine tooth patch crescentic to triangular without a posterior extension13
    1. Vomer without teeth; dorsal fin with 10 spines and 14–19 soft rays; 1 or more anterior soft dorsal-fin rays produced as filaments (at least in juveniles)9
    2. Vomer with teeth; dorsal fin with 10–12 spines and 11–16 soft rays; none of anterior soft dorsal-fin rays produced as filaments10
    1. Axil of pectoral fins with a distinct black spot on upper portion; a series of 8 or 9 relatively broad orange of yellow stripes on sides; soft dorsal-fin rays usually 15 (occasionally 14, rarely 16); soft anal-fin rays 9Lutjanus carponotatus (Spanish flag snapper)
    2. Axil of pectoral fins without a black spot; colour not as above; soft dorsal-fin rays usually 13 or 14 (rarely 12); soft anal-fin rays 8 (rarely 9)9
    1. A large black spot usually present on upper sides, juveniles sometimes with an ocellated spot and/or series of 4–7 broad dark stripes on side (adults of L. fulviflamma with yellow stripes)10
    2. No black spot present on sides; a series of narrow, yellowish longitudinal lines on side, those on upper back slanting upward toward dorsal-fin base, sometimes an enlarged darker stripe from eye to middle of caudal-fin11
    1. Soft dorsal-fin rays usually 14; a relatively wide gap between temporal scale bands on each side; black spot on upper side located mainly above lateral line; juveniles with a series of 4–7 broad stripes (blackish to orange or yellow-brown in life) on sides Lutjanus russelli (Russell’s snapper)
    2. Soft dorsal-fin rays usually 13; little or no gap between temporal scale bands on each side; black spot on upper side located mostly below lateral line or bisected by it, sometimes very elongate; juveniles without a series of broad stripes on sides Lutjanus fulviflamma (Blackspot snapper)
    1. Midlateral stripe usually broader and darker than other stripes on sides; transverse scale rows on cheek 7–10Lutjanus vitta (Brownstripe snapper)
    2. Midlateral stripe not broader or darker than other stripes on sides; transverse scale rows on cheek usually 6 or 7 (occasionally 8)12
    1. Predorsal scales extending to mid-interorbital level; a blunt, flattened spine on upper margin of opercle, above the main centrally located spine; interorbital width 4.4–6.5 times in head length; total gill rakers on first gill arch (including rudiments) 18–21Lutjanus xanthopinnis (Yellowfin snapper)
    2. Predorsal scales extending to level of rear part of orbit; no blunt spine on upper margin of opercle; interorbital width 6.5–6.9 times in head length; total gill rakers on first gill arch (including rudiments) 15 or 16 Lutjanus mizenkoi (Mizenko’s snapper)
    1. Total gill rakers on first gill arch 25–30 (including rudiments); caudal fin distinctly forked with rounded lobes Lutjanus gibbus (Paddletail snapper)
    2. Total gill rakers on first gill arch 14–23 (including rudiments); caudal fin emarginate, without rounded lobes 14
    1. Soft anal-fin rays 10; dorsal fin with 11 spines and 16 (rarely 15) rays; colour pattern of 3 dark brown to red transverse bars (sometimes indistinct in large adults)Lutjanus sebae (Red emperor)
    2. Soft anal-fin rays 8 or 9; dorsal fin elements variable, with 10 or 11 spines and 12–16 soft rays; colour not as above15
    1. Preopercular notch distinct (relatively well to well developed)16
    2. Preopercular notch indistinct (shallow or absent)19
    1. Soft dorsal-fin rays 15 or 16; body relatively deep, 2.1–2.4 times in SL; head usually with numerous wavy bluish lines; a white spot often present below junction of spinous and soft parts of dorsal fin (bordered with black in juveniles); lips thick in large adultsLutjanus rivulatus (Speckled snapper)
    2. Soft dorsal fin rays 13 or 14; body usually more slender, 2.3–2.8 times in SL; colour not as above; lips not thick in adults17
    1. Caudal fin and outer third of dorsal fin blackish or dusky brown with a narrow white marginLutjanus fulvus (Blacktail snapper)
    2. Caudal fin yellow or grey basally and yellow distally without narrow white margin; outer third of dorsal fin not distinctly darker than remainder of fin18
    1. Dorsal-fin spines 10; no yellow stripes on bodyLutjanus boutton (Button snapper)
    2. Dorsal-fin spines 11; 10–12 faint yellow stripes on sidesLutjanus rufolineatus (Goldenlined snapper)
    1. Colour pattern of 8 broad transverse bands or saddles on upper half of body and large black blotch in centre of caudal peduncleLutjanus semicinctus (Black-banded snapper)
    2. Colour pattern consisting of 5 dark stripes on whitish ground colour; 2 or 3 uppermost stripes crossed by dark vertical bars forming a network of light and dark squares; a larger dark spot at base of caudal fin Lutjanus decussatus (Chequered snapper)
    3. Colour pattern not as above20
    1. Nostrils set in a prominent groove running forward of eye in specimens >200 mm SL; colour generally dark brown on upper back grading to tan or light brownish ventrally; dorsal and caudal fins dusky; outer portions of anal and pelvic fins blackish; juveniles <200 mm TL with usually with 2 whitish spots on upper backLutjanus bohar (Red bass)
    2. Nostrils not set in groove at any size; colour pattern not as above21
    1. Caudal fin with a distinctive crescentic black marking, remainder of body and fins uniformly yellowish with a silvery sheen on lower sidesLutjanus lunulatus (Lunartail snapper)
    2. Caudal fin without a distinctive black marking; colour of body and fins variable22
    1. A black spot on upper side at level of lateral line below soft dorsal fin (faint or absent in large adults); remainder of body and fins mainly pale; tongue with a patch of fine granular teeth (sometimes absent in juveniles)Lutjanus monostigma (Onespot snapper)
    2. Black spot on upper side of body absent, although a saddle or spot sometimes present on upper portion of caudal peduncle; tongue smooth23
    1. Dorsal-fin spines 12; a series of 5 or 6 dusky yellow stripes on sides; longitudinal rows of scales below lateral line rising obliquelyLutjanus dodecanthoides (Sunbeam snapper)
    2. Dorsal-fin spines 10 or 11; colour not as above; longitudinal rows of scales below lateral line parallel to axis of body or rising obliquely 24
    1. Axil of pectoral fins black; colour overall deep red; posterior dorsal-fin and anal-fin rays elongated to form pointed fins; soft anal-fin rays 8Lutjanus timoriensis (Timor snapper)
    2. Axil of pectoral fins without a black marking; colour variable, but often red; posterior dorsal-fin and anal-fin rays low and rounded or tall and pointed, but if tall and pointed specimens usually with 9 soft anal-fin rays25
    1. Dorsal-fin spines 10; soft anal-fin rays usually 8 (rarely 9); tongue with a patch of fine granular teeth; colour variable, pink to greyish brown; juveniles without a black saddle on upper caudal peduncle26
    2. Dorsal-fin spines 11 (rarely 10); soft anal-fin rays usually 9 (occasionally 8); tongue smooth; colour largely reddish; juveniles usually with a black saddle on upper caudal peduncle28
    1. Interorbital width 4.9–5.2 times in head length; body relatively deep, 2.3–2.5 times in SL; snout-forehead profile flat or slightly convexLutjanus bitaeniatus (Indonesian snapper)
    2. Interorbital width 5.5–7.6 times in head length; body relatively deep, 2.4–2.8 times in SL; snout-forehead profile slightly concave27
    1. Lower body and pelvic and anal fins yellow; pectoral-fin rays 17Lutjanus papuensis (Papuan snapper)
    2. Body and fins not yellow; pectoral-fin rays 16 Lutjanus lemniscatus (Darktail snapper)
    1. Mouth relatively small, maxilla length much less than distance between bases of last dorsal- and anal-fin rays; interorbital width 3.5–4.8 times in head length (in specimens >150 mm SL); some longitudinal scale rows below lateral line slanting obliquely in posterior direction towards dorsal profile; head profile convex (in specimens >150 mm SL) Lutjanus erythropterus (Crimson snapper)
    2. Mouth larger, maxilla length about equal to distance between bases of last dorsal- and anal-fin rays; interorbital width 5.1–6.6 times in head length (in specimens >120 mm SL); some longitudinal scale rows below lateral line horizontal (although some rows may slant obliquely in juveniles <100 mm SL); head profile straight or slightly concaveLutjanus malabaricus (Malabar snapper)
    1. Colour pattern consisting of 4 relatively wide dusky brown or blackish stripes on pale ground colour (only known from juveniles <15 cm SL)Lutjanus maxweberi (Pygmy snapper)
    2. Colour pattern not as above30
    1. Vomerine tooth patch triangular with medial posterior extension; preorbital space narrow, 8.6–10.3 times in head length; a prominent black spot bisected by lateral line below spinous dorsal finLutjanus ehrenbergii (Ehrenber’s snapper)
    2. Vomerine tooth patch crescentic to triangular without a medial posterior extension; preorbital space wider, 4.7–4.9 times in head length; black spot on back present or absent31
    1. A large black spot on upper back usually present; colour pale with each scale on side with a brownish spot forming longitudinal rowsLutjanus johnii (Golden snapper)
    2. Black spot on upper back absent, colour darkLutjanus argentimaculatus (Mangrove jack)
Spesies Macolor
    1. Lengkungan insang pertama (termasuk rudimen) memiliki 37–42 penyapu insang pada bagian atas dan 71–81 pada bagian bawah (total 110–122); sirip dubur memiliki 3 duri dan biasanya 10 (kadang-kadang 11) duri lunak; sirip perut sangat panjang dan runcing pada usia muda, tetapi pendek dan bulat pada usia dewasa Macolor macularis (kakap hitam)
    2. Lengkungan insang pertama (termasuk rudimen) memiliki 26–38 penyapu insang pada bagian atas dan 60–71 pada bagian bawah (total 89–107); sirip dubur memiliki 3 duri dan biasanya 11 (kadang–kadang 10) duri lunak; sirip perut pendek dan bulat di semua ukuran Macolor niger (Kakap hitam dan putih)
Spesies Paracaesio
    1. Sisik gurat sisi (berpembuluh) 68–73; sirip ekor bercabang dalam 2
    2. Sisik gurat sisi (berpembuluh) 47–50; sirip ekor berlekuk hingga bercabang sedang 4
    1. Gigi sangat kecil, tanpa gigi taring besar Paracaesio brevidentata (Kakap mulut kecil)
    2. Gigi lebih besar, dengan gigi taring besar 3
    1. Tubuh warna abu-abu gelap, cokelat keunguan gelap atau kebiruan; praoperkulum memiliki 1 hingga 3 baris sisik di sekelilingnya dan biasanya terpisah secara jelas dari kumpulan utama sisik pipi Paracaesio sordida (Kakap sisik kecil)
    2. Sirip ekor, bagian atas tangkai ekor, dan sisi atas tubuh hingga ujung depan sirip punggung berwarna kuning; sisa tubuh sebagian besar berwarna biru; praoperkulum hampir selalu tanpa sisik di sekelilingnya ke kumpulan utama sisik pipi Paracaesio xanthura (Kakap biru ekor kuning
    1. Sisi atas dengan 4 garis kecokelatan; rahang atas bersisik Paracaesio kusakarii (Kakap punggung pelana)
    2. Sisi atas seluruhnya biru, tanpa garis vertikal; rahang atas tanpa sisik Paracaesio caerulea (Kakap Jepang)
Spesies Pinjalo
    1. Sirip punggung dengan 11 duri dan 14 atau 15 duri lunak; sirip dubur dengan 3 duri dan 9 atau (biasanya) 10 duri lunak; panjang sirip dubur terpanjang 2,1–2,65 kali panjang kepala; panjang sirip dada 3,05–3,9 kali dalam panjang standar; panjang sirip perut 1,4–1,65 kali panjang kepala; sirip ekor berlekuk dalam, ekor cekung 2,1–3,6 kali panjang kepala; garis-garis gelap diagonal mengikuti garis sisik pada tengkuk dan setengah bagian atas hingga dua pertiga tubuh Pinjalo pinjalo (Kakap pinjalo)
    2. Sirip punggung dengan 12 duri dan 13 duri lunak; sirip dubur dengan 3 duri dan 8 atau 9 duri lunak; panjang sirip dubur terpanjang 2,7–3,2 kali panjang kepala; panjang sirip dada 2,5–3,05 kali dalam panjang standar; panjang sirip perut 1,65–1,8 kali panjang kepala; sirip ekor agak berlekuk, ekor cekung 3,55–5,45 kali panjang kepala; tidak ada garis gelap diagonal pada tengkuk dan tubuh Pinjalo lewisi (Slender pinjalo)
Spesies Pristipomoides
    1. Sisik gurat sisi (berpembuluh) 48–50; sirip ekor bercabang dalam 2
    2. Sisik gurat sisi (berpembuluh) 57–74; sirip ekor berlekuk hingga bercabang sedang 3
    1. Dua garis emas bertepi warna biru pada moncong dan pipi; vermulasi melintang di atas kepala; suborbital lebar, lebarnya 7 kali panjang kepala pada panjang standar 15 cm, 5,5 kali pada 25 cm, 4 kali pada 40 cm Pristipomoides multidens (Jobfish garis emas)
    2. Tidak ada garis emas pada moncong dan pipi; vermulasi memanjang di atas kepala; suborbital sempit, lebarnya 8,4 kali panjang kepala pada panjang standar 15 cm, 7,3 kali pada 25 cm, 5,8 kali pada 40 cm Pristipomoides typus (Jobfish gigi tajam)
    1. Total penyapu insang (termasuk rudimen) pada lengkung insang pertama 27–33; sisik gurat sisi (berpembuluh) 67–74 4
    2. Total penyapu insang (termasuk rudimen) pada lengkung insang pertama 17–27; sisik gurat sisi (berpembuluh) 57–67 5
    1. Tonjolan gigi vomerin yang memanjang di tengah (tonjolan gigi vomerin kadang-kadang berbentuk wajik); tonjolan gigi pada lidah Pristipomoides sieboldii (Jobfish lavender)
    2. Tonjolan gigi vomerin berbentuk segitiga, tidak memanjang ke belakang di tengah; tidak ada gigi di lidah Pristipomoides auricilla (Jobfish panji emas)
    1. Bagian samping memiliki garis merah dan kuning miring bergantian; sisik gurat sisi (berpembuluh) 63–67 Pristipomoides zonatus (Kakap garis miring)
    2. Bagian samping tanpa garis merah dan kuning; sisik gurat sisi (berpembuluh) 57–63 6
    1. Bagian samping memiliki banyak corak gelap yang tidak teratur, termasuk garis zig-zag mengarah ke depan yang tampak pada posisi sejajar dengan gurat sisi dan kemudian ke bagian dorsolateral tangkai ekor mengarah ke belakang; total penyapu insang (termasuk rudimen) pada lengkung insang pertama 17–21; ketinggian tubuh 2,8–3,1 kali pada SL Pristipomoides argyrogrammicus (Kakap hias)
    2. Bagian samping tanpa corak gelap yang tidak teratur; total penyapu insang (termasuk rudimen) pada lengkung insang pertama 22–27; ketinggian tubuh 3–3,8 kali pada SL 7
    1. Panjang rahang atas 2,4–2,7 kali panjang kepala; gigi berbentuk taring di ujung rahang depan tidak cukup besar Pristipomoides filamentosus (Jobfish Crimson)
    2. Panjang rahang atas 2,1–2,4 kali panjang kepala; gigi taring di ujung depan kedua rahang biasanya besar Pristipomoides flavipinnis (Kakap mata emas)

Keluarga serupa:

 
Lethrinidae
Lencam
Lethrinidae
Lethrinidae dikatakan berbeda karena memiliki margin praoperkulum yang biasanya halus (vs biasanya bergerigi); duri branchiostegal 6 (vs 7); duri lunak sirip punggung 9 atau 10 (vs biasanya 11 atau lebih); tidak ada gigi pada vomer (vs gigi biasanya ada); sisik pipi tidak ada (vs ada), dan bibir sering berdaging (vs biasanya tidak berdaging).
 
Nemipteridae
Threadfin bream
Nemipteridae dikatakan berbeda karena memiliki margin praoperkulum yang biasanya halus (vs biasanya bergerigi); duri lunak sirip punggung 9 (vs biasanya 10 atau lebih); duri sirip dubur biasanya 7, jarang 8 (vs biasanya 8 atau lebih); duri branchiostegal 6 (vs 7), dan tidak ada gigi pada vomer atau tulang langit-langit (vs terdapat gigi).
 
Sparidae
Bream laut
Sparidae dikatakan berbeda karena memiliki margin praoperkulum yang biasanya halus (vs biasanya bergerigi); duri branchiostegal 6 (vs 7), dan gigi dalam rahang bervariasi-kerucut, bentuk seri, atau bentuk geraham (vs. tidak ada gigi bentuk seri, kecuali pada Symphorichthys spilurus yang memiliki gigi bentuk subgeraham).
 
Caesionidae
Ikan ekor kuning
Caesionidae dikatakan berbeda karena memiliki mulut kecil (vs cukup besar); area sebelum rahang atas sangat menonjol (vs area sebelum rahang atas cukup menonjol atau rapi); gigi dalam rahang kecil atau halus (vs biasanya tampak jelas); gigi area sebelum rahang, vomer, dan palatine biasanya tidak ada (vs gigi area sebelum rahang, vomer, dan palatine biasanya cukup besar); sirip ekor bercabang dalam, dengan lobus lancip (vs sirip ekor sering terpotong, berlekuk, atau bulan sabit).
 
Haemulidae
Grunt
Haemulidae
Haemulidae dikatakan berbeda karena memiliki sisik pada moncong dan lakrimal, sisik pada lakrimal sering tertancap (moncong dan lakrimal tanpa sisik); saluran preoperkulomandibula lubang sistem lateralis di bawah dagu melalui lekuk yang memanjang di tengah atau pori yang membesar, atau keduanya (vs tidak ada pori dagu), dan biasanya tidak ada gigi pada vomer, tidak ada gigi pada tulang langit-langi (vs biasanya terdapat gigi).

Spesies:

Lutjanus biguttatus
Kakap bintik dua
Lutjanus bitaeniatus
Indonesian snapper
Lutjanus bohar
Kakap merah
Lutjanus boutton
Button snapper
Lutjanus decussatus
Kakap kotak-kotak
Lutjanus ehrenbergii
Kakap Ehrenberg
Lutjanus fulviflamma
Kakap titik hitam
Lutjanus fulvus
Kakap ekor hitam
Lutjanus gibbus
Kakap ekor pelana
Lutjanus johnii
Kakap emas
Lutjanus kasmira
Common bluestripe snapper
Lutjanus lemniscatus
Kakap ekor hitam
Lutjanus lunulatus
Kakap ekor bulan
Lutjanus malabaricus
Malabar snapper
Lutjanus maxweberi
Pygmy snapper
Lutjanus mizenkoi
Mizenko’s snapper
Lutjanus monostigma
Onespot snapper
Lutjanus papuensis
Papuan snapper
Lutjanus quinquelineatus
Fivelined snapper
Lutjanus rivulatus
Speckled snapper
Lutjanus rufolineatus
Goldenlined snapper
Lutjanus russellii
Russell’s snapper
Lutjanus sebae
Red emperor
Lutjanus semicinctus
Black-banded snapper
Lutjanus vitta
Brownstripe snapper
Lutjanus xanthopinnis
Yellowfin snapper

Referensi:

  1. 1.
    Carpenter K, Niem V, Anderson W, Allen G. Lutjanidae. Di: FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 5. Bony Fishes Part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae). Vol 5. Rome: FAO Library; 2001:2791-3380.