- Eyes large, with distinct notch on their posterior edge
- Second dorsal-fin origin over anal-fin insertion
- First dorsal-fin upright, base short (its length 2 – 3 times in distance between pectoral and pelvic fins)
- Preanal ridges very long, equal to length of anal-fin base
- Snout very long and parabolic
- Upper and lower teeth with smooth-edged, narrowly triangular and oblique cusps
Dorsal surfaces bronze to greyish. Pectoral, pelvic and lower caudal fins with pale tips. Ventral surfaces almost white.
Maximum size up to 99 cm TL; birth size 40 – 55 cm TL.
Found in the tropical and subtropical Indo-West Pacific, from south-eastern Africa to Papua New Guinea and northwards to southern Japan.
Found over coastal and continental shelves in clear water, from 7 – 100 meters depth.
Feeds primarily on small bony fish (particularly anchovies), crustacean and cephalopods. Length at maturity is 66 – 79 and 62 – 82 for females and males respectively. Age at maturity is 1.4 and 1.9 years for females and males respectively. Females display a viviparous with yolk-sac placenta reproductive mode and produce 2 – 4 pups. In north-eastern Australia females give birth each December or January after a 9 – 12 month gestation. Size at birth varies regionally (e.g. 54 – 55 cm TL in Indonesia vs. 40 – 43 cm TL in northern Australia). Maximum age reported as at least 9 and 7 years for females and males respectively.
Caught commonly by inshore demersal gillnet fisheries. Utilised for its fins and meat, but is of limited value due to its small size.